Induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis in Borneo ironwood

01/31/2017 Comments off

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Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.15-19, 2017 (2017003)

Full title: Induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis in Borneo ironwood

Authors: Gibson Entuni and Rebicca Edward

Abstract: Induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis in Eusideroxylon zwageri, an endangered and hardest timber tree species in Borneo tropical rainforest, was initiated from immature leaves. Embryogenic callus cultures were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing 3% sucrose, 0.24% Gelrite, and various concentrations and combinations of BAP, NAA and GA3 after 4 weeks of culture in darkness. A higher response (76%) of embryogenic callus was induced on MS medium with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, 0.5 mg L-1 NAA and 1.0 mg L-1 GA3. Higher numbers of globular- (31), heart- (30), torpedo-(28), and cotyledon-stage (25) embryos per explant were obtained by culturing embryogenic callus on MS with 3% sucrose, 0.24% Gelrite without plant growth regulators after 8 weeks culture in darkness. These results on the induction of indirect somatic embryo in E. zwageri could be used for mass propagation and to select useful traits of this tree species at the cellular level. However, further work needs to be done on the conversion of the regenerated embryos.

Highlighted Conclusion
Murashige-Skoog medium is effective for the induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis in Eusideroxylon zwageri by using leaf as the main source of the explant.

Keywords: Eusideroxylon zwageri, Embryogenic callus, Timber, Somatic embryos.

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Anatomical variations in stomatal attributes of selected species of family Asteraceae

12/20/2016 Comments off

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Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.10-14, 2017 (2017002)

Full title: Anatomical variations in stomatal attributes of selected species of family Asteraceae

Authors: Muhammad Asif Tahir, Rizwan Sarwar, Sajid Safeer, Imran Hamza, and Muhammad Faraz Khan

Abstract: In order to document stomatal characters which are significant in taxonomy, a detailed microscopic study on leaf epidermis of the selected taxa from Asteraceae was carried out. The plant species were Sonchus oleraceus, Bidens bipinnata, Centaurea iberica, Conyza bonariensis, Helianthus annuus, Lectuca serriola, Parthenium hysterophorus, Tagetes erecta, Cosmos sulphureus, Launaea procumbens, Zinnia elegan, Galinsoga parviflora and Conyza canadensis. All the species were amphistomatic and four types of stomata i.e., tetracytic, anomocytic, anisocytic and tricytic were recognized. Tetracytic stomatal type was dominant followed by anomocytic. Stomatal density was high on abaxial epidermis than adaxial epidermis except in Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis. Highest stomatal density was in Tagetes erecta while lowest in Conyza canadensis. In lower epidermis stomatal index was higher in Sonchus oleraceus followed by Bidens bipinnata and Tagetes erecta while in upper epidermis highest index was shown by Cosmos sulphureus. Stomatal aperture and guard cell size and density were also significant features in these species.

Highlighted Conclusion
The study indicates the significance of micromorphological characters in identification of plant species.

Keywords: Stomata, Asteraceae, Epidermis, Taxa, Pakistan.

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A review on Tridax procumbens: a weed with immense phytochemical and pharmacological activities

12/20/2016 Comments off

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Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.1-9, 2017 (2017001)

Full title: A review on Tridax procumbens: a weed with immense phytochemical and pharmacological activities

Authors: Funmilayo Adelowo and Oluwole Oladeji

Abstract: Medicinal plants have provided mankind a large variety of potent drugs to alleviate or eradicate infections and suffering from diseases in spite of advancement in synthetic drugs, some of the plant-derived drugs still retained their importance and relevance. The use of plant-based drugs all over world is increasing. Natural products derived from plants for the treatment of diseases have proved that nature stands a golden mark to show the relationship between the interrelationship between man and his environment. The researches and utilization of herbal medicine in the treatment of diseases increases every day. There have been records of advances made in the modern medicine there are still a large number of ailments or diseases for which suitable drugs are yet to be found. This has brought an urgent need to develop safer drugs for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, diabetes, liver diseases, and gastrointestinal disorder. Tridax procumbens is a highly valuable drug and well known for number of pharmacological activities like wound healing, antidiabetic activity, hypotensive effect, immune-modulating property amongst other. Therefore, the phytochemical and pharmacological activities should be investigated.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Tridax procumbens is commonly regarded as weed in most part of Africa continents and are known for its pharmacological activity.
2. The application of the plant are immense such as pharmacological activities, hepatoprotective effect, immunomodulating property, wound healing activity, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, bronchial catarrh, diarrheal and dysentery.
3. Analysis revealed the presence of the biomolecules such as anthraquinone, catachol, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpernoids.
4. Tridax procumbens also desire development of novel therapeutic agents from the various types of compounds with diverse pharmacologic properties isolated from it.
5. Therefore, more work (study) should be encourage in direction of more pharmacological activities of Tridax procumbens and to elucidate the structures of the phytochemicals responsible for the therapeutic properties of the plant.

Keywords: Herbal medicine, Medicinal plant, Natural product, Pharmacological, Phytochemical, Synthetic drugs.

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Genetic study for yield and quality traits in infra-specific mapping population of melon

11/03/2016 Comments off

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Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 6, issues 3-4, p.61-65, 2016

Full title: Genetic study for yield and quality traits in infra-specific mapping population of melon

Authors: Smita Singh, Sudhakar Pandey, Richa Raghuwanshi, and Major Singh

Abstract: Heritability, inter-relationship and path coefficient studies were performed in an infra-specific cross between Snapmelon (Cucumis melo var. momordica) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) to produce an array of 249 F3 families. A pattern of moderate to high, broad sense heritability was estimated for yield attributing fruit traits. Fruit weight exhibited highest heritability (90.3%) while ovary length and diameter showed lowest heritability. Positive and significant correlation of yield was found with fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, Fruit quality traits ascorbic acid content (Vitamin C) and fruit flesh pH showed positive correlation. Path analysis showed significant positive direct effect of number of fruits per plant and fruit weight on yield. Study on allelic interaction of fruit traits during early generation will allow selection of better inbred lines and variety development reducing the cost of advancement, space and time required for inbreeding large size population.

Keywords: Cucumis melo var. momordica, Ascorbic acid, Fruit weight, Path analysis, Correlation, Yield traits, Infra-specific cross, Population, TSS.

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Correlation analysis for yield and fiber quality traits in upland cotton

10/18/2016 Comments off

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Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 6, issues 3-4, p.55-60, 2016

Full title: Correlation analysis for yield and fiber quality traits in upland cotton

Authors: Muhammad Yaqoob, Sajid Fiaz, and Babar Ijaz

Abstract: Yield and fiber quality are most important and complex trait as they depend on interaction of genetic architecture of plant and environment. To achieve this objective, two parents FH153, KZ191 and their F2 population were evaluated for the existence of inter-relationship of characters under study during 2014-2015, at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with three replications. Data were recorded for Plant height (cm), number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, pedicel length (mm), number of bolls per plant, number of seed per boll, boll weight (g), ginning out turn (%), fiber fineness (μ/inch), staple length (mm), fiber strength (g/tex), seed cotton yield (g). The obtained data were analyzed through correlation analysis at 0.01 and 0.05 significance level. The traits under study showed considerable range of phenotypic variability. The parent FH153 had maximum mean value for all traits under observation expect fiber strength. The parent KZ191 showed maximum fiber strength (21.1 g/tex). The F2 population of parents (FH153×KZ191) had minimum results for all traits. The results also showed positive association of characters with each other except staple length showed negative association with monopodial branches per plant, fiber strength and seed cotton yield.

Keywords: Gossypium hirsutum, Correlation, Cotton, Fiber quality, Yield.

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Studies on weed diversity and its associated phytosociology under direct dry seeded rice systems

10/18/2016 Comments off

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Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 6, issues 3-4, p.47-54, 2016

Full title: Studies on weed diversity and its associated phytosociology under direct dry seeded rice systems

Authors: Mantosh Kumar Sinha and Arnab Banerjee

Abstract: Chhattisgarh is commonly known as Bowl of rice where rice is grown as monocrop in the entire state whether soil is bhata, matasi, kanhar or black soil. Present study is based on the study of biodiversity of weeds  under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Koria District (C.G.) Study was conducted to assess the phytosociological studies of weed species in paddy  field at Baikunthpur, Koriya district, Chattisgarh. A total of 43 genera and 9 families of Dicotyledonae and 3 families of monocots and 1 Pteridophytes was also observed and 43 weed species were identified Ratio of Sedges: (Grasses:Broad-leaved weeds was calculated as 9:12:18 Ratio) under direct dry seeded rice systems. The results obtained indicated that Echinochloa colona, Cyperus iria and Cynodon dactylon were the most frequent in 2007; E. colona and C. iria were the most frequent in 2008 and 2009. The importance value index (IVI) revealed that the most important weeds within the community were Poaceae and Cyperaceae. Out of 12 angiosperm families the predominance was shown by monocot families Cyperaceae and Poaceae having and weed species, respectively. The pteridophyta family Marsileaceae was represented by 1 weed species.

Keywords: Weed, Paddy cropping system, Diversity, Koriya-Chattisgarh.

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Irrigation optimized of Cedrella fissilis seedlings

09/01/2016 Comments off

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Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 6, issues 3-4, p.39-45, 2016

Full title: Irrigation optimized of Cedrella fissilis seedlings

Authors: Ângela Simone Freitag Lima, Toshio Nishijima, Weslley Wilker Corrêa Morais, and Antônio Natal Gonçalves

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of irrigation intensity in development of Cedrella fissilis seedlings in the greenhouse. The statistical design was randomized blocks, arranged in a  bi-factorial design with split plot with three replications. As main plot was characterized for irrigation frequencies (treatments): T1 – one time irrigation daily (at 11h00min); T2 – two times irrigation daily (at 11h00min and 19h00min); T3 – three times irrigation daily (at 07 h00min, 11h00min, and 19h00min) and T4 – four times irrigation daily (at 07h00min, 11h00min, 15h00min, and 19h00min) and as a sub-portion eight times week assessment, and an eighth hardening phase. For the experiment was used a system of localized irrigation, consisting of: pump, irrigation nozzles, tubes and valves. The seedlings were grown in plastic containers (tubes) suspended for PVC trays. Data were collected weekly, obtaining the height and diameter of the seedlings, dry mass production and the number of sheets in each evaluation. After the analysis it was concluded that the frequency of the three irrigations per day showed the C. fissilis seedlings with better development and able to go to the field.

Keywords: Cedar, Water, Optimization, Biomass, Development.

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